Multiple Choice Answers

1. Suppose that a manager wants to increase the output of a staff of word processors/typists. Which of the following strategies would be consistent with the principles of scientific management?
a. Giving the typists pep talks every morning
b. Instituting an Employee of the Month program
c. Firing the least productive typists and hiring new ones
d. Designing work stations that increase the efficiency with which workers can perform their jobs

2. Antoinette applies for a job and spends a full day in discussions with other applicants and doing samples of work tasks, all the while being observed and rated. Antoinette is undergoing
a. an assessment center.
b. a test battery.
c. a “smart test.”
d. a situational interview.

3. An example of a soft performance criterion is
a. how many light bulbs are packaged per hour.
b. how effective a manager is in motivating subordinates.
c. how long it takes a worker to assemble a toy product.
d. how many dollars in sales are generated by a salesperson.

4. Observing new trainees on the job to see how often they use new skills is an example of using what kind of evaluation criteria?
a. Reaction criteria
b. Learning criteria
c. Behavioral criteria
d. Results criteria

5. In the XYZ company, a new employment policy is established by the Executive Council, which sends a memo to the Vice President of Human Resources. The V.P. then communicates the message to the Manager of Employee, who shares the information with all Human Resource workers. This is an example of which kind of communication network?
a. The circle network
b. The Y network
c. The wheel network
d. The all-channel network

6. Ross just started a job with a new employer. According to the steps in organizational socialization, before he learns about the roles he and others play in the group and makes the transition to regular member, Ross must first
a. clearly communicate his expectations to the group.
b. develop realistic expectations about the organization and the job.
c. forget his expectations and concentrate on the job tasks.
d. discover the expectations that other group members have of him.

7. Several salespeople disagree with their colleagues about how the new product introduction should be handled. This is an example of what level of conflict?
a. intragroup
b. intraorganizational
c. intergroup
d. interorganizational

8. Zach is the manager of a group of clerical workers. He is considering implementing a new computer system. Before he decides what to do, he carefully asks a series of questions concerning his decision. In all likelihood, Zach is following which theory of leadership?
a. the path-goal theory
b. the decision-making model
c. Fiedler’s contingency model
d. Leader Match

9. Kevin is one of four product managers in one organization, and Lisa is vice president of sales for all products in another organization. Kevin’s organization reflects a __________ design while Lisa’s reflects a __________ design.
a. centralized, decentralized
b. decentralized, centralized
c. divisional, functional
d. functional, divisional

10. What is the term for the view that encourages recognition of equality for all cultural and national groups and promotes the idea that various cultural groups have the right to follow their own paths of development and have their own unique activities, values, and norms?
a. individualism
b. multiculturalism
c. femininity
d. cultural relativism
e. uncertainty avoidance

11. If a psychologist studies the hidden meanings that people of different countries attach to their birthday greetings, she is studying which cultural characteristics?
a. explicit
b. collectivist
c. implicit
d. individualist
e. power-distance related

12. A graduate student tells you that she is going to travel India to collect comparative data for her dissertation. She indicates that she has chosen this country because she was born there and believes she will have a relatively easy time finding a research sample. What type of sampling strategy is she employing?
a. random sampling
b. systematic sampling
c. convenience sampling
d. experimental sampling
e. reliable sampling

13. Which one of the following is an example of the Fundamental Attribution Error?
a. Russia has a high rate of violent crime because of the country’s tough laws.
b. Russia has a high rate of violent crime due to poverty and cold weather.
c. Russia has a high rate of violent crime as a result of numerous factors.
d. Russia has a high rate of violent crime because Russians are violent.
e. Russia has a high rate of violent crime due to problems in their educational system.

14. Jane is a national of Canada. She is kind, goal-oriented, knowledgeable in literature, outgoing and musically inclined. Which of these characteristics would be considered a dichotomous variable?
a. her nationality
b. her kindness
c. her emotional stability
d. her social behavior
e. her musical skills

15. What type of values is associated with exercising control over society and exploiting its natural resources?
a. Mastery values
b. Democratic values
c. Liberal values
d. Conservative values
e. Harmony values

16. Cultures measured high on hierarchy and low on egalitarianism tend to emphasize ___________ among people.
a. cooperation
b. ethnic and other cultural differences
c. power and status differences
d. similarities
e. differences in achievement motivation
17. Which one is not a common symptom of acculturative stress?
a. Nostalgic symptoms
b. Loss of control
c. Hallucinations and delusions
d. Dissatisfaction over language barriers
e. Dissatisfaction over perceived differences

18. As a developmental psychologist I believe that humans possess no inborn abilities and that a child’s parents can mold them into whatever they want them to be. Which of the following would best describe my beliefs?
a. Empiricism
b. Innate goodness
c. Original sin
d. Darwinism

19. “Mom, he’s looking at me! Make him stop!” These remarks imply that the very act of being looked at is offensive to this child. Mom, on the other hand, doesn’t see the problem. This typical family dilemma illustrates
a. sibling rivalry.
b. nature versus nurture.
c. an issue of cognitive development.
d. internal models of experience.

20. Roberta married for the first time at age 39, and at age 40 she is pregnant for the first time. She is now considering starting college to become a computer systems engineer. When Roberta laughingly tells her friends, “I have never done anything when I was supposed to!” what is she referring to?
a. Her social clock
b. Her biological clock
c. Her psychological clock
d. A critical period

21. You are a taking part in a survey which asks about your attitudes toward physical punishment of children. Even though you believe that spanking is sometimes necessary, you answer that you are opposed to any sort of physical punishment. Which of the following terms best describes why you answered the way that you did?
a. Social desirability
b. Experimenter bias
c. Randomness
d. Sample representation

22. Which of the following is the best example of a cross-sectional research study?
a. Dr. Huang assessed the eye-hand coordination of the second, fourth, and sixth graders of Maple Leaf Elementary School in September 2006.
b. Dr. Sanchez assessed the eye-hand coordination of the second, fourth, and sixth graders of Maple Leaf Elementary School in December 2006, and the same children will be tested again in 2008, 2010, and 2012.
c. Each year at the beginning of the school year, the five children of the Jones family visit their family doctor to have physical exams.
d. Each year the five-year-olds of Washington, D.C., are given number and letter proficiency exams before they begin kindergarten.

23. Carolyn is thinking of her children and what they are to become. She wants to see her children succeed and raise healthy families of their own. Carolyn spends more and more time thinking about how best to help her children be good people who contribute to society. Which of Erikson’s stages would Carolyn most likely be experiencing?
a. Identity vs. role confusion
b. Integrity vs. despair
c. Intimacy vs. isolation
d. Generativity vs. stagnation

24. A boy is pestering his mother for candy in the grocery store, whining for ten minutes and saying things like, “I want candy! Please? Just this once! Oh, come on, Mom, please?” His mother ignores him for ten minutes, but finally gives in and says, “Oh, all right. Here it is. Just stop whining!” If the boy engages in more whining in the future, and the mother gives in even more easily, which of the following would apply to the mother?
a. Negative punishment
b. Positive punishment
c. Negative reinforcement
d. Positive reinforcement

25. Niko plans to go to a good college. He seems unconcerned about competitive admissions policies because he believes that if he studies hard, he can get in wherever he wants. Bandura would consider this an example of which of the following?
a. A self-fulfilling prophecy
b. Delayed gratification
c. A positive self image
d. Self-efficacy

26. Two-year-old Sven can use crayons and paper to draw pictures. According to Piaget, why is Sven drawing pictures?
a. He is presenting an outward representation of his internal thoughts.
b. At this age the drawings mean nothing, Sven is simply improving his motor skills.
c. Sven is in the early stages of learning to write.
d. He is presenting an outward manifestation of others’ thoughts.

27. When you contact a retired neighbor to ask if she is interested in participating in a charity fund-raiser, she tells you that she is no longer interested in activities such as this, and she is content to do as little as possible since she retired. Your neighbor’s perspective is most consistent with which of the following views on aging?
a. Adaptation
b. Discontinuity theory
c. Disengagement
d. Social reticence

28. Which of the following is most consistent with the concept of a crisis as defined by James Marcia?
a. When Imani failed her calculus test, her parents grounded her for two weeks and imposed a requirement of two hours of supervised study every school night until the next exam.
b. Since she was a child, Lila had planned to become a physician when she grew up. Recently, however, she has become very interested in physics, and now she is evaluating related career options such as engineering.
c. Torrential rains in the Midwest caused major flooding, and thousands of people were displaced from their homes and lost their possessions and livelihoods.
d. For the past two years, Juan has had thoughts of suicide, and recently he was diagnosed with depressive disorder.

29. Louise and Woodrow moved to a retirement community on a lake because they like to fish and ski. According to Longino, their move could be considered to be which of the following?
a. Amenity move
b. Convenience move
c. Activity-related move
d. Compensatory move

30. Which of the following couples would most likely report the lowest level of marital satisfaction?
a. Paula and Steve have been married 21 years and have three children who are through college and establishing themselves in professional careers.
b. Anthony and Anita have been married for three years and are still considering parenthood.
c. Tina and Saul have been married ten years and have two children who are nine and seven years old.
d. Rosario and Juan are both 65 years and have just retired from the grocery store they have owned and managed for 40 years.

31. Mrs. Jiminez has recently been promoted to administrator at the local nursing home, which means that she must be at work by 7:00 a.m. Mrs. Jiminez also believes that she should provide her children with breakfast and supervision before they get on the school bus at 7:30 each morning. What is Mrs. Jiminez experiencing?
a. Role conflict
b. Role strain
c. Stasis
d. Social life stress

32. Justin isn’t sure if he wants to date Mary, with whom he shares many similarities, or Emma, who is very different from him. His friend says, “Opposites attract,” and advises him to date Emma. But his brother says, “Birds of a feather flock together,” and suggests that he pursue Mary. This best exemplifies that
a. folk wisdom is often full of contradictions.
b. folk wisdom is usually wrong.
c. folk wisdom oversimplifies complex situations.
d. common sense is an individual difference.

33. Professor Chadwick is young and looks even younger than his years. He dresses in jeans, grubby tennis shoes, and Hawaiian print shirts. One day in the hallway, he strikes up a conversation with a student. During the conversation, the student begins to complain about the poor teaching of the faculty in the department and about the bad things he’s heard about the course that Professor Chadwick teaches. Needless to say, when the student finds out he was actually talking to a professor, he feels embarrassed and avoids Professor Chadwick. What is the moral of this story?
a. Students should be seen and not heard.
b. Schemas may make us efficient, but sometimes at a cost in accuracy.
c. Heuristics make us more efficient, but only if we apply them to schemas.
d. The world would be a better place if people abandoned their schemas altogether.

34. Warren believes that Tom is an outgoing, gregarious person. “Whom did you hang out with this weekend?” Warren asks Tom. “Tell me about all of the fun things that you have planned for the summer,” Warren continues. Although Tom is usually rather quiet and reserved, he responds to Warren in an outgoing, friendly manner. This is an example of
a. the perseverance effect.
b. the primacy effect.
c. reconstructive memory.
d. a self-fulfilling prophecy.

35. Nora has been blind since birth, and has never seen a smile, frown, or furrowed brow. At age three, how capable would she be of expressing emotions using the facial expressions of sighted people?
a. Incapable of properly using facial expressions, she would require special training.
b. She would be capable of expressing only negative emotions such as anger or sadness.
c. She would be able to express all six basic emotions just as well as sighted people.
d. It depends on what culture she is being reared in.

36. In talking to an acquaintance of yours, you note that she never looks you directly in the eye. To figure out whether this is because she is shy, because she dislikes you, or because she comes from a culture that discourages direct eye contact, you would probably
a. apply an implicit personality theory.
b. make an attribution.
c. use a judgmental heuristic.
d. develop a schema.

37. Jenny was obese as a child, but is currently a normal weight for her height. Based on research by Rudman and her colleagues (2007) presented in your text, Jenny is most likely to have a ________ attitude about overweight people.
a. favorable implicit
b. unfavorable implicit
c. favorable explicit
d. neutral

38. “Feel great. Smell great.” goes the warm, lilting theme song of a television ad for perfume, as the model dances through a field of flowers. Why would this ad be most likely to work?
a. These ads convincingly demonstrate the good performance of the perfume at covering odor.
b. One-sided messages are more effective with social identity products.
c. Cognitive appeals work best with most consumer products.
d. Emotional appeals work well with social identity products.

39. Results from a recent fMRI study replicated Asch’s line judgment study. The results of the fMRI suggest that when participants judged rotated figures and stated a correct answer when the others around them unanimously stated an incorrect answer, the area of the brain that was active was the
a. visual cortex, which senses and perceives visual input.
b. amygdala, which is associated with negative emotions.
c. hippocampus: an area associated with trauma.
d. right cingular gyrus: an area associated with pain detection.

40. You belong to a study group that your math instructor assigned you to in the beginning of the semester. Your group’s task is to solve several problems every week. What type of group, according to your text, would lead to optimal performance?
a. a highly cohesive group
b. a group in which the members strongly dislike one another
c. a group that isn’t all that cohesive
d. a mixed-gender group

41. According to your authors, there are three theories that can explain the role of arousal in social facilitation. Which of the following best represents the three theories?
a. others make us alert; apprehension about being evaluated; and others are distracting
b. others distract us; we do not want to violate a norm by doing something wrong; we are more alert around others
c. people are no more distracting than a lamp; lamps provide visual distraction; distraction from easy tasks is unlikely to impact performance
d. easy tasks are made difficult if too much thought is devoted to the task; distraction from tasks positively impacts performance; we are less alert when distracted by others

42. Suppose Dan is late for a very important meeting. As he runs toward his car, he sees a woman using crutches who has dropped a large stack of papers onto a busy sidewalk. Dan feels a great deal of empathy for this woman because he remembers how tough it was when he had to use crutches a couple years before. According to the empathy-altruism hypothesis, Dan will
a. help her pick up the papers because knows that she and other people around them will think he’s a nice person.
b. help her pick up the papers because he wants to reduce his own and her distress.
c. help her pick up the papers because he wants to feel good about himself.
d. not help her pick up the papers because he knows how long it takes to pick up papers.

43. Joseph was on the subway when he noticed a man lying slumped over on the seat. Joseph looked around at the other passengers, who seemed calm and unconcerned. Joseph concluded that the man was probably okay. However, the other passengers may have been looking around at Joseph, to see how he reacted. This would be an example of
a. social reciprocity.
b. pluralistic ignorance.
c. false uniqueness.
d. conformity.

44. Amelia is trying hard to explain to Ricardo why women should not be restricted to the home. Even though Ricardo has no firm basis for his beliefs, Amelia’s logical arguments fail to persuade him in this case because
a. logical arguments rarely work on the emotional basis of attitudes.
b. Ricardo holds negative stereotypes about women, including Amelia.
c. Amelia’s arguments are too difficult to follow.
d. logical arguments rarely change sex-role stereotypes.

45. Alice’s three children are driving her crazy. They are constantly squabbling, calling one another names, and generally tormenting one another. To preserve what’s left of her sanity, Alice has decided to try to convince the youngsters to get along. She promises them that she will take them to a funny movie if they will work together to clean their playroom in under thirty minutes. Which of the preconditions for reducing conflict does this illustrate?
a. one-on-one interactions between in-group and out-group members and an informal setting
b. the reduction of frustration and a common goal
c. a neutral setting and role differentiation
d. mutual interdependence and a common goal

46. Six months ago, a nursing home started a program in which some residents were allowed to choose their daily activities. All else being equal, which of the following residents is likely to die soonest?
a. Edgar, who participated over the entire course of the program
b. Ruth, who recently joined the program
c. Martha, who recently dropped out of the program
d. George, who never participated in the program

47. When Kate encounters a lot of stress, she often turns to friends for help. When Kate is not under stress, she will often nurture her friends who are under stress, and continue to build up her social network. Kate seems to respond to stress using the ________ response.
a. learned helplessness
b. fight-or-flight
c. denial
d. tend-and-befriend

48. Julie is very confident that she has correctly identified the suspect in a robbery. What should jurors conclude about the accuracy of her identification of the suspect?
a. That she is probably very accurate.
b. That her confidence has very little to do with how accurate she is.
c. That she is probably dead wrong.
d. That it is completely irrelevant information.

49. Keep in mind experimental research on eyewitness accuracy conducted by Dunning and Stern (1994) and Schooler and Engstler-Schooler (1990). Now, assume that you are a juror in a robbery trial. All things being equal, of which of the following eyewitnesses should you be most skeptical?
a. Mr. Latz, who had a good view of the robber
b. Mrs. Jones, who remembers that the robber had a beard
c. Ms. Mabry, a bank teller who immediately wrote down a description of the robber
d. Mr. Collins, a guard who picked the robber out of a sequential lineup

50. Helena is a model child at school who is popular with her peers. She has high standards for herself, but is realistic about attaining them. It is likely that her parents use a(n) __________ model for discipline.
a. authoritative
b. authoritarian
c. permissive
d. indulgent