__________ theories hold that certain actions or practices are inherently right or wrong.
According to the textbook, all of the following are true about a person’s possible opposition to technological violations of natural orders EXCEPT:
A. they are sometimes based on concern about long-term consequences of intervention.
B. they can be based on religious beliefs.
C. they often stem from the longevity of a particular practice.
D. they stem from a lack of education.
Ethical conflict over cases of cross-border and multigenerational pollution is an example of a dispute relating to:
A. violations of established world orders.
B. violations of supposedly exceptionless principles.
C. distribution of science- or technology-related benefits.
D. exposure to significant harm without prior consent.
Sometimes the availability of technological advances causes individuals to experience conflicts concerning their cherished values. Examples of these conflicts discussed in your textbook include all of the following EXCEPT:
A. the right to the pursuit of happiness.
B. death with dignity.
C. right to privacy.
D. human life preservation.
A large number of individual acts of negligible adverse impact can result in substantial harm when considered in total. These outcomes are referred to as:
A. public harms of aggregation.
B. conflicts between individual and social justice.
C. practitioner problems.
D. problems of “positive” rights.
_________ arise primarily inside the spheres of science and technology.
A. Science- or technologically-precipitated value conflicts
B. Science- or technology-engendered “positive rights”
C. Practitioner problems
D. Problems of public aggregation
Ethical problems related to __________ indicate that freedom of scientific inquiry is not an absolute, unconditional, inviolable right.
A. distributive justices
C. consideration of long-term effects
D. fraud and misrepresentation
The text suggests that, ultimately, science- or technology-related courses of action should be granted ethical approval only if:
A. the expected benefits of an action outweigh its expected costs.
B. projected outcomes yield at least as large a surplus of beneficial consequences over harmful consequences as that of any available alternative.
C. the action will make everyone better off, and yield the greatest benefit to those currently in worst positions.
D. the projected harmful consequences are below a set quantitative threshold and are greatly outweighed by their positive counterparts.
Paul Alcorn maintains that the distinction between human and animal manipulation of the natural environment to create artifacts is:
B. the ethical application of technology.
D. creativity and adaptation.
According to Paul Alcorn, technology is all of the following EXCEPT:
A. a whole collection of methodology and artificial constructs created by human beings to increase their probability of survival.
B. essentially a means of manipulating natural laws to our benefit by constructing objects and methodology that increases our efficiency and reduces waste in our lives.
C. a way to increase our standard of living by generating more income.
D. is represented by artifacts that are manufactured for specific use.
__________ is the resistance to changes in our culture that extends to any technological device that may come along; because of this resistance, the passage of time is necessary before a new technology will filter throughout society.
C. Psychological trauma
Because of __________ some of the elements of a system cannot be seen but can affect the operation of a system; this is important because we must realize that what can’t be seen can still cause harm.
D. ignorance and mistaken hypotheses
According to Tim Healy, the Internet is an example of the unanticipated consequences of technology because:
A. its impact on human behavior is predictable.
B. the ramifications of its influence are negligible.
C. its influence on all humans throughout the 21st century is still unknown.
D. its use is not consistent throughout the world.
Which of the following does Healy conclude about the unanticipated consequences of technology?
A. Life is not as complex as we like to think it is.
B. Uncertainty cannot be reduced because there is no way to predict the future.
C. Only significant actions have unanticipated consequences.
D. Short-term and long-term values are often different and contradictory.
About __________ of processed food that is produced in the United States contains some genetically modified ingredients.
According to your textbook, the first genetically modified food was produced:
A. 8,000 years ago.
B. in 1994.
C. in 2004.
D. in 2005.
Which of the following is NOT a risk of genetically modified foods listed by your textbook?
A. Economic loss by small-scale farmers
B. Economic loss due to longer shelf life of some products
C. Inadvertent death in humans
D. Loss of public trust due to lack of labeling
Individuals might blow the whistle if they believe:
A. their company is breaking the law.
B. their company is involved in acts that are financially profitable but morally wrong.
C. the actions of the company are potentially dangerous.
D. All of the above
Which of the following statements is FALSE?
A. Whistle-blowing often occurs when an individual believes that decision making by a company or the government may be breaking the law.
B. Ethics codes are often too broad to capture the ethical issues that confront companies.
C. Ethical behavior inevitably produces an economic cost to a firm.
D. Whistle-blowers often come from senior positions, since these are the people who have the most control over or have the most knowledge about what is occurring within the corporation.
It is believed that the Challenger explosion could have been prevented if: