History 130

1.The weakest area of the American economy through the 1920s was
the automobile industry.
electric power.
the stock market.
2. As secretary of commerce, Herbert Hoover practiced “associationalism.” That is, he gave government encouragement and assistance to private business in all the following ways EXCEPT
A. by urging businesses to act in the public interest.
B. by encouraging the creation of trade associations.
C.by advocating laissez-faire policies to avoid government control.
D. by combining the ideal of individualism with the pursuit of efficiency, organization, and cooperation.
3. The National Origins Act fixed immigration patterns for four decades; it
a. authorized discrimination against American citizens who had a particular national origin.
B. allowed for increased immigration from Asia, particularly well-educated Japanese.
C. greatly increased immigration from eastern Europe.
D.put strict quotas on the number of immigrants to be allowed into the U.S. every year
4. One of the most important economic transformations in the years after World War I was
the shift from industry’s reliance on railroads to reliance on the automobile.
the move from the Northeast and Midwest to the West Coast as the country’s industrial heartland.
a change from a more cooperative to a more adversarial relationship between government and business.
the shift in production from heavy industry to consumer goods and services.
5. What was an element of U.S. economic diplomacy in the 1920s?
reducing German reparation payments to the victorious Allies in return for helping stabilize the German economy
canceling World War I debts owed by European nations to the U.S. in order to make it feasible to reduce German reparations
reducing the tariff to allow other nations to sell their goods in the U.S.
promoting arms sales abroad to bankrupt rival powers
6. The beginnings of political realignment were already in evidence in the returns of the election of 1928, after which the Republicans
lost power in the cities.
gained strength in the industrial northeast.
gained support among union members.
lost the southern vote.
7. In the early part of the twentieth century, immigration from Mexico jumped for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
fleeing the dislocations of revolution.
fleeing poverty.
recruiting by the AFL in a campaign to increase its membership.
recruiting by American farmers in need of farm workers.
8. To encourage consumption, demand for goods was stimulated by all of the following EXCEPT
increased business competition.
the creation of consumer credit.
a new abundance and variety of goods available.
9. For labor unions, the 1920s was a decade of
serious decline in membership.
retooling to become eager partners with business in a cooperative welfare capitalism.
unprecedented membership growth.
holding on, retaining but not increasing membership or influence.
10. The automobile was to the 1920s what the railroad had been to the nineteenth century in that
the government regulated it strictly.
Americans made heroes out of automakers like Ford and Sloan, as they had the railroad builders.
automobile production relied on earlier forms of corporate strategies.
it was both a powerful catalyst to economic growth and a symbol for the age
11. What might be called a “second or post-Industrial Revolution,” the “roaring economy” of the 1920s involved all the following EXCEPT
a productivity revolution based on technology.
a consumer-goods revolution.
a revolution in labor relations, marked by new growth in the size and influence of labor unions.
a revolution in thinking, in which advertising persuaded consumers to buy now rather than save.
12. At a conference held in Washington in 1921, the Five-Power Agreement involved
the creation of a collective security agreement throughout the Western Hemisphere.
steps toward naval disarmament.
steps to outlaw war.
the end of the Open Door.
13. Examples of the “defenders of the faith” of traditional America against modern urban culture in the 1920s include all EXCEPT
hostility to radicalism, which gave the label “Red Scare Decade” to the 1920s.
Protestant fundamentalism, which persisted despite the humiliation of the Scopes trial.
the rejuvenation of the Ku Klux Klan, which crusaded against both blacks and foreigners.
prohibition, which reduced both drinking and respect for the law.
14. The expansion and consolidation of industry between 1920 and 1930 meant that
the government was increasingly controlled by a few extremely rich “captains of industry.”
individual stockholders had more and more say in company management.
more and more anti-trust actions were initiated by the government.
bureaucratic management became divorced from stockholder ownership
15. Which statement about the National Origins Act of 1924 is NOT true?
It set immigration policy for the next 40 years, reversing the three-century-old practice of virtually open immigration.
It gave preference to northern and western Europeans.
It completely cut off foreign immigration.
It reflected a resurgent nativism.
16. The former presidential candidate who became a leading spokesman against the theory of evolution during the 1920s was
Woodrow Wilson.
William McAdoo.
Andrew Mellon.
William Jennings Bryan.
17. Henry Ford’s great contribution to modern industrial culture was
his canny use of product diversification to appeal to a wide range of individual tastes.
his sensitivity to the needs of the modern worker.
the invention of the gasoline engine.
his commitment to standardization and assembly-line mass production.
18. Which one of the following was NOT a feature of the modern corporation in the 1920s?
A new wave of mergers further consolidated industry into a series of oligopolies.
Ownership was spread among thousands of stockholders.
Bureaucratized organizations created a new elite of salaried managers.
Corporate power existed in the hands of stockholders rather than in company management.
19. The outpouring of literature and art by the “New Negro” of the 1920s became known as the
Civil Rights movement.
Black Resurrection.
Harlem Renaissance.
Southern Revival.
20. What piece of federal legislation in the 1920s was a significant shift from a historic American practice?
tariff reduction
immigration restriction
antitrust enforcement
Prohibition repeal