Expert Answers

Which of the following statements best describes Mercury’s atmosphere?
A. Mercury has essentially no atmosphere.
B. Mercury’s atmosphere is similar to the Earth’s atmosphere.
C. Mercury has a thin methane atmosphere.
D. Mercury consists of hydrogen and helium.

In what way does the surface of Mercury differ from the Moon’s surface?
A. Mercury’s surface is not cratered.
B. Much of Mercury’s surface is covered with congealed lava
C. Mercury’s surface has more volcanoes.
D. Mercury’s surface was formed more recently.

Which of the following statements best describes the surface of Venus?
A. The surface is heavily cratered.
B. The surface is covered by extensive maria.
C. The surface is covered by lava flows.
D. The surface shows motion of tectonic plates.

What evidence supports the hypothesis that Venus may have active volcanoes?
A. Photographs of volcanic eruptions taken by the Magellan spacecraft
B. Some of the lava flows appear very fresh
C. Electrical discharge activity around the volcanic peaks
D. There are period increases in the sulfur content of its atmosphere
E. All of the choices are correct

Which of the following is true of Venus?
A. Venus’ orbital period is long compared to Earth’s
B. Venus orbits the Sun in the opposite direction than the rest of the terrestrial planets.
C. Venus spins slowly compared to the Earth.
D. All of the choices are correct.
E. Both Venus’ orbital period is slow compared to Earth and Venus orbits the Sun in the opposite direction than the rest of the terrestrial planets are true

What evidence supports the hypothesis that cycles of ice-ages have occurred on Mars?
A. The polar caps shrink in the summer.
B. The seasonal variations on Mars are extreme.
C. The Mariner spacecraft recorded extreme temperature variations.
D. The layered structure of the north polar cap of Mars.
E. Mars has an axial tilt similar to the Earth’s

Which of the following is a probable explanation for the formation of the Valles Marineris?
A. It is a canyon carved by ancient water flow on the surface of Mars.
B. It is a scarp that formed when the Martian crust cooled and shrunk.
C. It resulted from plate tectonic movement on Mars.
D. It resulted from the stretching of the mantle by the rising of the Tharsis bulge.
E. Both it resulted from plate tectonic movement on Mars and it resulted from the stretching of the mantle by the rising of the Tharsis bulge are probable explanations.

Which of the following causes the high magnetic field of Jupiter?
A. Strong Aurora
B. Rapid rotation of the planet
C. Metalic hydrogen in the core of Jupiter, which is highly magnetic
D. It results from the combined effect of the planets rapid rotation and convection in the layer of metallic hydrogen in the planet’s interior

What causes the Cassini division in Saturn’s ring system?
A. Electrical charges that push the rings apart, creating a gap
B. The tidal force from Saturn
C. The repeated pull from Mimas, who orbits Saturn with period twice that of particles would orbit in the Cassini division
D. It is a region were dust particles did not accrete

What evidence supports the hypothesis that the larger satellites of Saturn did not experience significant heating by Saturn?
A. Because the satellites of Saturn formed much later, when the planet cooled off
B. Because their density increases with increasing distance from the planet
C. Because they have about the same density
D. Because Saturn is very cold

Which of the following statements correctly describes the star abundances in the Milky Way galaxy?
A. The majority of the stars observed are main sequence stars.
B. The majority of the stars are young stars.
C. The majority of the stars are cool, low mass stars.
D. All of the choices are correct.
E. Only the majority of the stars observed are main sequence stars and the majority of the stars are cool, low mass stars.

Which object extends farther from the nucleus of the Milky Way galaxy?
A. The disk
B. The spiral arms
C. The halo
D. The bulge
E. A population I object

Which of the following statements is true about the rotation of the Milky Way Galaxy?
A. It rotates like a solid object (i.e., the farther the object from the center, the higher the speed.
B. It rotates according to Kepler’s laws (i.e., the farther the object from the center, the lower the speed).
C. The speed tends to level off as the distance from the center gets larger.
D. The speed is inversely proportional to the square of the distance.

Where is it more likely to find a population II star?
A. In the center of the Milky Way
B. In the spiral arms of the Milky Way
C. In the Halo of the Milky Way
D. At the center of HII regions
E. Both Iin the spiral arms of the Milky Way and in the Halo of the Milky Way are likely.

Which of the following could explain the origin of the S0 type galaxies?
A. When they were young, S0 galaxies used all their disk material and formed stars all in one burst
B. S0 galaxies are spirals that lost their dust and gas in a collision with hot intergalactic gas
C. S0 galaxies are spirals that lost their spiral arms because of their rapid rotation
D. All of the choices are viable explanations.
E. Only when they were young, S0 galaxies used all their disk material and formed stars all in one burst and S0 galaxies are spirals that lost their dust and gas in a collision with hot intergalactic gas are viable explanations.

Which object extends farther from the nucleus of the Milky Way galaxy?

Which of the following statements is true about the rotation of the Milky Way Galaxy?

Where is it more likely to find a population II star?

Which of the following could explain the origin of the S0 type galaxies?

Q. Give a possible explanation for the fact that galaxies with active nuclei are only located billions of light-years from us.

Q. Assuming that there was a tenth “planet” (yes, Pluto is no longer a “planet” but according to Bode’s law it is ) out beyond Pluto, that none-the-less could be predicted using Bode’s Law  (SHOW ALL WORK! Anyone can do this!) Don’t forget Kepler’s third law!
a) how far would it be from the Sun? (you only need Bode’s law for this)

b) what would its orbital period be? (Kepler’s third law needed here)

Q. Planet X is discovered circling a star 50 lt-yrs away from us. Analysis of the giant planet’s radius and mass, show them to be 1 x 10^10 centimeters (cm),  (that’s ten to the tenth power – 10,000,000,000  – ten billion cm), and 6 x 10^27 grams a) What is the density of the giant planet ?

Q How long does it take sunlight to reach Pluto? (The inside front cover of your text has the distance) Show all work or no credit!