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MATCHING SECTION #1 MATCHING SECTION INSTRUCTIONS: Read all instructions carefully. Please answer all questions. Each question is worth 1 point. There are two matching sections, each is worth 10 points. **Do not enter your answers here.** Type in the letter you select from the “definition” list as the best answer on the Answer Sheet provided by your instructor.

Term or Concept
1. Water molecule H. polar
2. Carbon E. element found in all living organisms
3. Homeostasis I. characteristic of all living organisms
4. Ionic Bonding C. electron donated/received
5. Covalent Bonding B. two atoms sharing electrons
6. Carbohydrate A. energy source
7. Enzyme F. catalyst
8. Acid G. OH-> H+
9. Base J. H+ > OH-
10. Lipid D. hydrophobic

Definition or Association
FILL IN THE BLANK SECTION INSTRUCTIONS: Provide the best answer for the items below. Each item is worth number 2 points. This section is worth 10 points. Please answer all questions in this section. **Do not enter your answers here.** Type in your best answer on the Answer Sheet provided by your instructor.

1. You find a cell of a type you have never seen before. The cell has both a nucleus and a cell wall. Therefore, you conclude, it must be a ________ cell.

2. Eukaryotic cells use ________ a an organelle specialized in energy production.

3. A substance with a pH less than 7 is ________.

4 . Enzymes affect the rate of chemicals reactions ________. Enzymes are biologic catalysts.

5. What macromolecule can be built directly from nucleotides ________ ?

ESSAY SECTION Complete all questions in this Essay Section INSTRUCTIONS: Each question is worth 10 points. Total points for this section is 80 points. **Do not enter your answers here.** Type your answers into the Answer Sheet provided by your instructor.

1. You scoop up a water sample from a local pond nearby, because you are curious about the possible microbes that might live there. After looking at several slides that held drops of the sample, you noticed two different kinds of cells: One kind was very small and had no separate internal structures; the other kind was much larger, and it contained several kinds of internal structures that were physically different from each other. Please name each cell and briefly describe their overall similarities and differences.

2. PKU (phenylketonuria) is an enzyme deficiency disease that only develops in individuals who are homozygous recessive for that gene. An individual with PKU has parents that do not have this disease. What is the parents’ genotype for the gene responsible for PKU? What is the probability that they may have another child with PKU? How many future children of the affected individual will be carriers? Explain your answers.

3. Humans share 99% of their genes with chimpanzees, 90% with mice, 50% with fruit flies, and 37% with celery. Please explain the evolutionary significance of these data.

4. Describe the major land biome where you live. How have human activities changed the landscape and how has this affected native species? Include specific examples.

5. The habitat of one species of tropical fish is red coral reefs. The large majority of the fish in this population are red. A few individual fish carry a mutation that prevents the production of the red pigment; as a result these individual fish are white. The temperature of the ocean where these fish live gets warmer and warmer over a 10 year period, and as a result the coral is bleached and turns white. Use what you have learned about natural selection to explain how this bleaching event may have affected the evolution this fish population (not including possible direct effects of warmer temperatures on the fish). Include the following terms in your explanation: differential reproduction, beneficial trait, allele frequency, selection pressure, evolution.

6. Use what you have learned about energy transfer in food chains and the second law of thermodynamics to explain why it is an environmentally good choice to eat a plant based diet. Include the following terms in your answer: producer, herbivore, omnivore, trophic level, resources and energy

7. You have read that inorganic fertilizers contribute to water pollution and would like to make a switch from inorganic fertilizers to organic compost in your vegetable garden. A friend graciously gives you a truck load of his compost. As a good researcher and critical thinker you are not convinced that organic compost will yield the same results as the inorganic fertilizer you have used for years with good results. To draw your own conclusion based on scientific evidence you decide to conduct an experiment in your garden. State a good hypothesis, design an experiment (include test subjects, sample size, control(s), dependent and independent variables, type of data collected) and hypothetical results/conclusion. Does your conclusion support the hypothesis?

8. Evaluate the following abstract Classify this study as “science” or “pseudoscience”. Write a paragraph or two and defend your classification of the study. Geomagnetic activity is a form of radiation that can disturb the outer atmosphere and is associated with flare up activity on the sun’s surface. These flare ups cause the “Northern Lights” – geomagnetic storms.