Lenex Brand

Company XZC sells its Lenex Brand to four different segments—A, B, C, and D. The variable cost for Lenex is $15. The size of each segment is 1000 people. The reservation prices for the segments are: A $50 B $40 C $30 D $20

4.1 Assuming the XZC cannot use price discrimination, at what price should it sell Lenex to maximize its profits? How much would the profits be?

4.2 If Lenex could use price discrimination, how much would the profits rise? What would be the practical difficulty in implementing it?

4.3 Assume that the government wants everyone to be able to afford Lenex. It offers XZC a subsidy of $20,000 if XZC sells Lenex to all 4000 potential customers. Should XZC accept this offer? (Hint: XZC is trying to maximize its profits and in this case cannot use price discrimination.)

4.4 Assume that the government wants everyone to be able to afford Lenex. It offers XZC a subsidy of $7 per unit sold if XZC sells Lenex to all 4000 potential customers. Should XZC accept this offer? (Hint: XZC is trying to maximize its profits and in this case cannot use price discrimination.)

Perspectives

In 250-500 words, define three different learning perspectives. ii) In an additional 250-500 words, explain what the perspectives look like in a classroom setting. iii) Provide three different lesson plans with one activity that addresses each perspective that you provided in your paper. iv) Use standard essay format in APA style, including an introduction, conclusion, and title page. An abstract is not required. Cite in-text and in the References section. Need at least 3 references

Leadership Skills

Question 1
Participation may be undesirable in all of the following situations EXCEPT when:
A. follower commitment is not necessary.
B. the tasks are complex and quality is important.
C. time is of the essence.
D. interaction between leader and followers is restricted.
Question 2
Genencor International started its employee participation program:
A. when they built a new headquarters.
B. after the leadership team took a trip to Japan.
C. after they hired a new CEO.
D. as a routine part of doing business.
Question 3
Li Wei is under pressure to make a quick decision on a project with which she has considerable expertise and experience. Her team is inexperienced and generally supportive, and she needs the members’ strong commitment to implement her decision. In this situation, Li Wei should:
A. make decisions by herself.
B. allow for employee participation.
C. seek more information.
D. delegate the decision to the group.
Question 4
The more __________ a culture, the less likely it is that employees will participate in decision making.
A. coolectivist
B. ascriptive
C. power oriented
D. flexible
Question 5
Which cultural values will least likely support employee participation and empowerment?
A. high power distance
B. collectivist
C. humane orientation
D. high time (future) orientation
Question 6
The leadership traits identified by IBM to revive the company include which of the following?
A. being a visionary
B. developing people and enabling growth
C. being able to take charge
D. having both task and people skills
Question 7
In spite of cultural and other differences, one of the keys to successful implementation of teams is:
A. follower’s involvement.
B. organizational policies.
C. slow implementation.
D. leader’s belief in participation.
Question 8
Which of the following is one of the goals of delegation?
A. help th eleader with excessive workload
B. share power with employees
C. empower employees
D. increase the leader’s power
Question 9
Leaders should generally not delegate which type of tasks or decisions?
A. Strategic decisions
B. Personnel decisions
C. Manufacturing tasks
D. Quality control
Question 10
Which underlying factor may be a contributing factor to leader’s inability to delegate?
A. follower’s personality
B. leader’s personality
C. organizational policies
D. organizational culture
Question 11
__________ are more likely to find it difficult to delegate task to their followers.
A. Experienced managers
B. Relationship-oriented leaders
C. Leaders who have trouble developing positive LMX
D. Type A leaders
Question 12
In teams, members often share:
A. a culture.
B. norms.
C. history.
D. personal experiences.
Question 13
Self-managed teams use leadership based on:
A. cooperation.
B. consideration.
C. shared responsibility
D. facilitation.
Question 14
__________ is one of the key factors in effective teams.
A. Building trust
B. A good leader
C. Clear rules
D. A goal handed down from upper management
Question 15
Robert wants to increase the trust among his team members. What should he do?
A. an exchange procesCreate friendly competition among the members.
B. Set up formal communication mechanisms.
C. Reward cooperation.
D. Assign a formal leader.
Question 16
__________ is intended to teach team members to monitor, assess and correct their behavior in the team.
A. Self-guided correction
B. Cross training
C. Coordination training
D. Assertiveness training
Question 17
Self-leadership is similar to which of the other theories of leadership?
A. Fiedler’s Contingency Model
B. The LMX model
C. The substitutes for leadership
D. Situational leadership
Question 18
The use of teams in the U.S. was triggered by:
A. globalization.
B. the growth of the Chinese economy.
C. failure of the U.S. management methods.
D. the successful use of teams in Japan.
Question 19
Instead of team-based management, Australian researchers have proposed the concept of __________ to involve individuals in teams in Western cultures.
A. collaborative individualism
B. self-leadership
C. participation
D. transformational leadership
Question 20
Self-leaders __________ instead of __________.
A. keep information; sharing information.
B. make sure everyone is on board; letting employees develop their own goals.
C. provide a vision; letting the team set goals.
D. encourage creativity; conformity.
Question 1
__________ targets developing leadership for the organization and frequently highly individualized in nature.
A. Executive development
B. Leader development
C. Leadership development
D. Supervisory and managerial development
Question 2
__________ involves a a relatively permanent increase or change in behavior, knowledge, or skill that comes about because of some experience.
A. Education
B. Development
C. Learning
D. Training
Question 3
__________ programs focus on self-awareness and understanding of strengths and weakness as well as getting in touch with personal values.
A. Basic knowledge
B. Personal growth
C. Skill development
D. Creativity
Question 4
A willingness to learn requires both:
A. motivation and readiness
B. motivation and education
C. readiness and education
D. readiness and development
Question 5
Whechien was recently hired as a floor manager of a local home garden center. During his first month as manager, he participated in 80 hours of orientation training to become familiar with the policies and procedures of the organization. Which element of the core of learning best represents this example?
A. willingness to learn
B. ability to learn
C. effective informal support
D. sufficient development experiences
Question 6
If the culture values __________, then leader development should focus opportunities on all employees.
A. egalitarianism
B. high power distance
C. action-orienttion
D. high communication context
Question 7
__________ refers to leader development programs that focus on information about content of leadership and fundamental concepts such as communication, feedback and contingent rewards.
A. Basic knowledge
B. Personal growth
C. Skill development
D. Creativity
Question 8
__________ focuses on the application of knowledge which included topics such as planning, goal setting, and monitoring.
A. Basic knowledge
B. Personal growth
C. Skill development
D. Creativity
Question 9
Because the United States has __________, it is appropriate to create leader development programs with a high degree of exposure to new and challenging situations.
A. tolerance for ambiguity
B. action-orientation
C. high communication context
D. low power distance
Question 10
Cultures that value __________, can focus the content of leader development and training on practical matters and hands-on training.
A. action-orientation
B. high communication context
C. tolerance for ambiguity
D. high power distance
Question 11
Coaching programs are most often used in:
A. executive development programs.
B. self-development programs.
C. supervisor training programs.
D. leader development programs.
Question 12
Which personality trait is most likely related to one’s ability to seek and accept feedback?
A. external locus of control
B. openness to experience
C. emotional stablility
D. high macs
Question 13
Self-awareness is a limited method for leader development because it only provides leaders with:
A. rich developmental experience.
B. individual awareness.
C. opportunity for practice.
D. support from the organization.
Question 14
When using the __________ criteria for leader training, participants must be alerted to the need for change and specific areas they should address so that they are ready to change.
A. assessment
B. individual awareness
C. opportunity for practice
D. challenging experience
Question 15
Which criteria for effective development relate to the culture of the organization?
A. fit and integration
B. assessment
C. opportunity for practice
D. feedback
Question 16
Leader development programs that provide parallel learning environments and address different learning styles offer:
A. appropriate assessment and follow-up.
B. clearly stated objectives.
C. integrated assessment.
D. a combination of tools and methods.
Question 17
__________ refers to the process of personal reflection and getting feedback from others.
A. Values clarification
B. Assessment
C. Double-loop learning
D. Learning
Question 18
The only potential weakness for real experience in leader development criteria is __________, which can be easily built in through formal programs or use of existing organizational performance tools.
A. individual awareness
B. feedback on new learning
C. opportunity for practice
D. assessment
Question 19
The primary difference in the methods often used for coaching and mentoring programs is that mentoring usually does not include:
A. assessment.
B. opportunity for practice.
C. support from the organization.
D. individual awareness.
Question 20
__________ is an ongoing, long-term change or evolution that occurs because of various learning experiences.
A. Development
B. Training
C. Education
D. Curriculum
Marta has just been appointed to a top level executive position in her company. Which of the following leadership skills is she most likely to need and use?
A. technical
B. interpersonal
C. conceptual
D. organizational

Maleeni enjoys new situations and likes taking risks and believes that leaders should delegate decision making to the lowest possible level. Which strategic leadership type is she?
A. High-control innovator
B. Participative innovator
C. Status quo guardian
D. Process manager
Question
Which of the Big Five personality dimensions is most strongly correlated to job performance?
A. concientiousness
B. emotional intelligence
C. openness to experience
D. agreeableness
Question
__________ is the Big Five personality dimension that is important in jobs such as management that require social interaction.
A. Emotional intelligence
B. Extraversion
C. Openness to experience
D. Agreeableness
Question 11
Locus of control is an indicator of:
A. how much control a person needs.
B. how much contril a person feels he/she has.
C. the control level of leaders.
D. control available in the situation.
Question 12
Which of the following best describe Type As?
A. Type As are strategic thinkers who are proactive.
B. Type As try to do more in less time.
C. Type As are willing to cut corners to achieve their goals.
D. Type As are good at persuading others.
Question 13
The leader’s power increases when employees:
A. are motivated.
B. comply with her decisions.
C. do not resist a decision.
D. are committed to her decisions.
Question 14
Research about the effect of power distribution suggests that:
A. centralized power allows organizations to perform well.
B. concentrated power can be detrimental to performance.
C. leaders often give up their power willingly.
D. power sharing works well in most cultures.
Question 15
Individuals with __________ power can influence others because they are liked and respected.
A. legitimate
B. referent
C. informational
D. reward
Question 16
__________ is one of the influence tactics that rely on all sources of personal power.
A. Pressure
B. Personal appeal
C. Consultation
D. Rational persuasion
Question 17
The concept of __________ suggests that teams gain power based on their ability to remove obstacles for others.
A. strategic contingencies
B. shared power
C. empowerment
D. coalition building
Question 18
A team leader focuses on assuring that his team members have the latest expertise not available elsewhere in the organization. He is using which organizational source of power to assure that his team has power?
A. centrality
B. organicity
C. substitutability
D. coalition building
Question 19
The key organizational factor in abuse of power is:
A. a decentralized structure.
B. the organizational culture.
C. the leadership succession plan.
D. the training and development plan.
Question 20
The underlying theme of empowerment is:
A. delegating all power to employees.
B. sharing power with those who need it to perform their job.
C. setting goals that everyone can achieve easily.
D. centralizing decision making in the team.
Question 1
Structure is best defined as:
A. the way human resources are organized.
B. the process by which inputs are transformed into outputs.
C. a common set of beliefs.
D. the internal factors that affect an organization.
Question 2
__________ includes all of the outside forces that potentially affect the organization.
A. Environment
B. Structure
C. Technology
D. Strategy
Question 3
Two general sets of factors moderate the power and discretion of executives. These include:
A. employees and other managers.
B. environmental factors and stakeholders.
C. external factors and organizational factors.
D. leadership factors and market issues.
Question 4
Culturally endorsed leadership theories (CLTs) were proposed by:
A. GLOBE researchers.
B. Hofstede.
C. Trompenaars.
D. Hall.
Question 5
A sense of crisis sets the stage for:
A. poor performance.
B. emergence of charismatic CEOs.
C. a decrease in CEO discretion.
D. stakeholders to exercise more power.
Question 6
Which one of the strategic leaders tries to protect the organization from the impact of outside forces, encourages a fluid culture, and emphasizes efficiency?
A. High-control innovator
B. Participative innovator
C. Status quo guardian
D. Process manager
Question 7
In successful companies, the well-established culture and procedures often:
A. reduce the impact of teams.
B. provide increased discretion to the leader.
C. increase the power of the leader.
D. act as substitutes for the CEO.
Question 8
The _______, the less the power and discretion of the CEO.
A. less uncertainty in the environment
B. stronger the TMT
C. younger the organization
D. more cohesive the organization
Question 10
How open a leader is to change and how willing he/she is to take risks is most important and relevant:
A. in small organizations.
B. during the formulation of strategy.
C. in times of crisis when high-risk decisions often pay off.
D. in certain environments.
Question 11
Which one of the strategic leaders implements the latest high-technology innovations in his/her organization, builds a strong dominant culture, and hires managers who are similar to him/her?
A. High-control innovator
B. Participative innovator
C. Status quo guardian
D. Process manager
Question 12
According to the culturally endorsed leadership theories, which cultures most value leaders who are inspirational and provide a vision?
A. Middle Easterners and Southern Europeans
B. Latin Americans and Nordic Europeans
C. Eastern Asians and Africans
D. Southwestern Asians and Germans
Question 13
Tolerance for diversity, extent of centralization, degree of employee participation, and organicity are all part of which characteristic of upper echelon leaders?
A. internal orientation
B. collectivism
C. need for control
D. risk-aversion
Question 14
The common thread among many female executives is:
A. the fear of failure.
B. employee empowerment.
C. lack of international experience.
D. strong financial skills.
Question 15
One argument in support of the high executive packages is that:
A. higher pay leads to higher performance.
B. the high salaries are needed to prevent CEOs from abusing their power.
C. CEO jobs are demanding and unstable.
D. U.S. CEOs are among the best in the world.
Question 16
The public-good mission of nonprofits, along with voluntary participation of many contributors requires leaders to engage in a __________ style.
A. directive
B. collaborative
C. authoritative
D. task-oriented
Question 17
How does Lafley regard power?
A. Power is not necessary for performance.
B. Power must be shared with all employees.
C. Building a power base starts with expertise and must be backed up with force if necessary.
D. Power is determined by influence rather than control.
Question 18
How many strategic forces are in the domain of strategic leadership?
A. two
B. four
C. six
D. eight
Question 19
Zhen does not like change much and empowers his employees to make their own decisions. Which strategic leadership type is he?
A. High-control innovator
B. Participative innovator
C. Status quo guardian
D. Process manager

Multiple Choice Answers

The most important aspect of power is probably that it _____. A. is needed to get things done in an organization B. is a function of dependency C. tends to corrupt people D. is counter productive

The reconceptualization of the contingency model by Garcia and Fiedler is called __________ theory. A. situational B. cognitive resource C. evaluative D. cognitive dissonance

What term describes the key characteristic of organizational control that addresses the degree to which employees are expected to exhibit precision? A. accountability B. attention to detail C. stability D. reactivity

Power is A. a means for leaders to achieve goals B. defined by leaders’ hopes and aspirations C. a goal in and of itself D. not an influence on leaders’ goals

Leaders achieve goals, and power is A. defined by leaders’ hopes and aspirations B. a means of achieving goals C. a goal in and of itself D. a strong influence on leaders’ goal

Which path-goal leadership style leads to greater satisfaction when tasks are ambiguous or stressful? A. Directive B. Supportive C. Participative D. Reactive

According the Path-Goal Theory, what leader is friendly and shows concern for the needs of followers? A. Achievement-oriented leader B. Laissez-faire leader C. Participative leader D. Supportive leader

Phrases such as “more cultural diversity,” “many new entrants with inadequate skills,” and “increase in aging workers” are all examples of what force for change? A. Technology B. World politics C. Nature of the work force D. Competition

What is a goal of planned change? A. To change the forces of change B. To alter the agents of change C. To change employees’ responsibilities D. To improve the ability to adapt to the environment

Using covert influence to overcome resistance to change is called what? A. negotiation B. education C. coercion D. manipulation

If individuals resisting change are included in making change decisions in an attempt to gain their support, what is this approach is called? A. cooptation B. exploitation C. manipulation D. education

Which of the following is a characteristic of organizational control? A. Formality orientation B. Decision orientation C. Team orientation D. Managerial orientation