Stem Cell

Write a 750-1,200 word essay, summarizing the main ideas and claims of the Update: Stem Cell Research article. Include the following:

What evidence or reasons are used to support the main ideas and claims of the article?

Which ideas or claims seemed most valid from your perspective?

Summarize your position on the issue of stem cell research and the ethical treatment of life.

APA format is not required, but solid academic writing is expected.

Expert Answers

1. Two hundred raffle tickets are sold. Your friend has five people in her family who each bought two raffle tickets. What is the probability that someone in her family will win the raffle?

2. Jolie has 45 minutes to do her statistics homework. If the mean is 38 minutes and the standard deviation is 3 calculate Jolie’s z score. Once calculated, interpret your findings in terms of Jolie’s performance. (Hint: use the normal distribution and the probability that the other students performed better or worse.)

3. A psychologist measures units of change for a memory test after students are given an opportunity to sleep only four hours. The following change units were obtained: 7,-12,4, -7, 3, -10. Find the

a) mean

b) median

c) mode

d) standard deviation

e) range

f) variance

Expert Answers

Question 1
The __________ test is useful for before/after experiments.
A. goodness-of-fit
B. sign
C. median
D. chi-square

Question 2
The __________ test is useful for drawing conclusions about data using nominal level of measurement.
A. goodness-of-fit
B. sign
C. median
D. chi-square

Question 3
In an experiment, a sample size of 10 is drawn, and a hypothesis test is set up to determine: H0 : p = 0.50; H1:p < or = 0.50; for a significance level of .10, the decision rule is as follows:

A. Reject H0 if the number of successes is 2 or less.
B. Reject H0 if the number of successes is 8 or more.
C. Reject H0 if the number of successes is three or less.
D. Reject H0 if the number of successes is less than 2 or more than 8.

Question 4
For a “before and after” test, 16 of a sample of 25 people improved their scores on a test after receiving computer-based instruction. For H0 : p = 0.50; H1:p is not equal to 0.50; and a significance level of .05:
A. z = 1.2, fail to reject the null hypothesis.
B. z = 1.4, reject the null hypothesis.
C. z = 1.4, fail to reject the null hypothesis.
D. z = 1.64, reject the null hypothesis.

Question 5
A sample group was surveyed to determine which of two brands of soap was preferred. H0 :p = 0.50; H1: p is not equal to 0.50. Thirty-eight of 60 people indicated a preference. At the .05 level of significance, we can conclude that:
A. z = 0.75, fail to reject H0.
B. z = 1.94, fail to reject H0.
C. z = 1.94, reject H0.
D. z = 2.19, reject H0.

Question 6
The performance of students on a test resulted in a mean score of 25. A new test is instituted and the instructor believes the mean score is now lower. A random sample of 64 students resulted in 40 scores below 25. At a significance level of α = .05:
A. H0 : p = 0.50; H1:p< 0.50.
B. H0 : p = 0.50; H1:p> 0.50.
C. H0 : p = 25; H1:p> 25.
D. H0 : p = 25; H1:p< 25.

Question 7
From the information presented in question #6:
A. z = 3.75, we can reject the null hypothesis.
B. z = 1.875, we fail to reject the null hypothesis.
C. z = -1.625, we fail to reject the null hypothesis.
D. z = -1.875, we can reject the null hypothesis.

Question 8
A golf club manufacturer claims that the median length of a drive using its driver is 250 yards. A consumer group disputes the claim, indicating that the median will be considerably less. A sample of 500 drives is measured; of these 220 were above 250 yards, and none was exactly 250 yards. The null and alternate hypotheses are:
A. Ho: 0 = 250; H1: 0 < 250.
B. Ho: median = 250; H1: median > 250.
C. Ho: 0 > 250; H1: 0 < 250.
D. Ho: median = 250; H1: median < 250.

Question 9
From the information presented in question #8, using a level of significance = .05:

A. z = -1.74; we should fail to reject the null hypothesis.
B. z = 2.64; we should fail to reject the null hypothesis.
C. z = -2.72; we should fail to reject the null hypothesis.
D. z = -3.17; we should reject the null hypothesis.

Question 10
The Wilcoxon rank-sum test:
A. is a nonparametric test for which the assumption of normality is not required.
B. is used to determine if two independent samples came from equal populations.
C. requires that the two populations under consideration have equal variances.
D. Both A and B

Question 11
A nonparametric test which can evaluate ordinal-scale data of a non-normal population is called the:
A. Wilcoxon signed rank test.
B. Kruskal-Wallis test.
C. sign test.
D. median test.

Question 12
A researcher wishes to test the differences between pairs of observations with a non-normal distribution. She should apply the:
A. Wilcoxon signed rank test.
B. Kruskal-Wallis test.
C. Wilcoxon rank-sum test.
D. t test.

Question 13
data below indicate the rankings of a set of employees according to class theory and on-the-job practice evaluations:
Theory 1         7          2          10        4          8          5          3          6          9
Practice 2        8          1          7          3          9          6          5          4          10
What is the Spearman correlation of coefficient for the data?
A. -0.0606
B. 0.1454
C. 0.606
D. 0.8545

Question 14
For the value of rs determined, a test of significance indicates that:
A. t = -0.45, a weak negative relationship between the two variables.
B. t = – 0.06, a strong negative relationship between the variables.
C. t = 0.45, a weak positive relationship between the two variables.
D. t = 4.65, a strong positive relationship between the variables.

Question 15
To determine whether four populations are equal, a sample from each population was selected at random and using the Kruskal-Wallis test, H was computed to be 2.09. What is our decision at the 0.05 level of risk?
A. Fail to reject the null hypothesis because 0.05 < 2.09
B. Fail to reject the null hypothesis because 2.09 < 7.815
C. Reject the null hypothesis because 7.815 is > 2.09
D. Reject the null hypothesis because 2.09 > critical value of 1.96

Question 16
A soap manufacturer is experimenting with several formulas of soap powder and three of the formulas were selected for further testing by a panel of homemakers. The ratings for the three formulas are as follows:
A         35                    36                    44                    42                    37                    40
B         43                    44                    42                    32                    39                    41
C         46                    47                    40                    36                    45                    49

What is the value of chi-square at the 5% level of significance?
A. 6.009
B. 6
C. 5.991
D. 5

Question 17
Which of the following values of Spearman’s coefficient of rank correlation indicates the strongest relationship between two variables?
A. –0.91
B. –0.05
C. +0.64
D. +0.89

Question 18
Suppose ranks are assigned to a set of data from low to high with $10 being ranked 1, $12 being ranked 2, and $21 being ranked 3. What ranks would be assigned to $26, $26 and $26?
A. 4, 5, 6
B. 4, 4, 4
C. 5, 5, 5
D. 5.5, 5.5, 5.5

Question 19
Two movie reviewers gave their ratings (0 to 4 stars) to ten movies released this past month as follows:
Movie
         A            B         C         D         E          F          G         H         I           J
S’s Rating        4          2          3.5       1          0          3          2.5       4          2          0
T’s Rating       3          3          3          2.5       1.5       3.5       4          3          2          1
What is the rank order correlation?
A. 48
B. 0.7091
C. 2.306
D. 2.844

Question 20
What is a requirement that must be met before the Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance by ranks test can be applied?
A. Populations must be normal or near normal
B. Samples must be independent
C. Population standard deviations must be equal
D. Data must be at least interval level

Expert Answers

Question 1
A firm has sales in consecutive years as follows:
Year                Sales
1                      $500,000
2                      $400,000
3                      $450,000
4                      $600,000
5                      $580,000
Using year 1 as a base year, which of the following statements is true?
A. The index number for year #3 is 90.
B. The index number for year #4 is 133.33.
C. Year #2 sales are 80% of the base year level.
D. Both A and C

2 The index that measures price changes in domestic output for a number of industries is called:
A. the consumer price index.
B. the industrial production index.
C. the producer price index.
D. an economic index.

 

3 Use the following information, and 2000 as a base year, to answer questions 3-5.
Price Per Unit Quantity Item          2000                2001                2000                2001
            A                                             1.00                 1.10                 2                      4          B                                                5.50                 6.00                 2                      3
An unweighted, unaggregated price index would give a value of:

A. 91.
B. 100.
C. 109.
D. 119.

4 A Laspeyres price index would give a value of:
A. 69.3.
B. 101.4.
C. 109.2.
D. 169.3.

5 A Paasche price index yields a value of:
A. 89.2.
B. 109.2.
C. 119.6.
D. 172.3.
6
The Paasche index is a weighted aggregate price index that uses weights based on:
A. base period quantities.
B. the ratio of base period quantities to current period quantities.
C. current period quantities.
D. the ratio of base period prices to current period prices.

Question 7
Answer questions 7-11 based on the following information:
The following data was gathered for domestic consumption (C, in millions of tons) and price per unit (P) of basic foodstuffs (base year is 2001):
2001                2002                2003                                                                                                                Type               P                      C                     P                      C                     P                        C                                                                                                         Wheat             2                      10                    3                      11                    5                      14                                                                                                                                            Barley             3                      7                      2                      10                    3                      12                                                                                                                                            Corn                1                      12                    1                      13                    2                      14
The Laspeyres price index for 2002 is:
A. 105.66.
B. 124.53.
C. 179.24.
D. 253.83.
8
The Laspeyres price index for 2003 is:
A. 105.66.
B. 120.00.
C. 141.17.
D. 179.24.

Question 9
The Paasche price index for 2002 is:
A. 101.54.
B. 116.07.
C. 120.00.
D. 124.53.

Question 10
The Paasche price index for 2003 is:
A. 141.05.
B. 171.79.
C. 179.24.
D. 252.83.
Question 11
A value index for the information would be:

A. 147.17.
B. 174.26.
C. 179.4.
D. 252.83.
Question 12
The consumer price index:
A. may be used to determine real disposable personal income levels.
B. is an indicator of the rate of inflation in the economy.
C. illustrates the extent to which purchasing power has been eroded since the base year.
D. All of the above
Question 13
GNP in country X for 2002 is $800 billion. If the consumer price index is currently 125, real GNP, in billions, for 2002 was:
A. $675.
B. $640.
C. $925.
D. $1,000.
14
The GNP in country Y in 2002 was $340 billion; if real GNP was 425, the price deflator for 2002 is:
A. 42.5.
B. 80.
C. 100.
D. 125.

Question 15
If the average hourly earnings in mining in 1978 was $7.67 and for the most recent month was $14.90, what is the index of hourly earnings for the most recent month based on 1978?
A. 100.0
B. 186.9
C. 151.5
D. 194.3
16
The Bureau of the Census reported that the farm population dropped from 30.5 million in 1940 to 6.5 million in 1999. What is the index for 1999 based on 1940?
A. 469.7
B. 100.0
C. 21.3
D. 78.7

Question 17
The number of items produced and the price per item for the Duffy Manufacturing Company are:                                     Price               Production                                                                                                                 1990                2000                1990                2000
Shear pins (box)         $3                    $4                    10,000             9,000
Cutting compound (lb.)$1                  $5                    600                  200
Tie rods (each)           $10                  $8                    3,000               5,000
What is the value index of production for 2000 using 1990 as the base period?
A. 115.2
B. 72.9
C. 110.6
D. 127.1
18
An index number is a percent that measures the change from one period of time to another in terms of:

A. value
B. price
C. quantity
D. all of the above
19
Which index is computed using base year prices and quantities and current year prices and quantities together?
A. Laspeyers
B. Paasche
C. Value
D. Consumer Price
20
The Consumer Price Index in June 1998 was 248.4 (1982-84 = 100). What does this indicate about prices from 1982-84 to June 1998?
A. Rose 248.4%
B. Rose 548.4%
C. Rose 148.4%
D. Declined 148.4%