Asset Betas

What types of firms need to estimate industry asset betas? How would such a firm make the estimate? Describe the process step by step.

Explain how each of the following actions or problems can distort or disrupt the capital budgeting process.
a. Overoptimism by project sponsors.
b. Inconsistent forecasts of industry and macroeconomic variables.
c. Capital budgeting organized solely as a bottom-up process.