1. Learning is a change in behavior that is:
A. relatively permanent and due to experience.
B. relatively permanent and due to maturation.
C. absolutely permanent and due to experience.
D. absolutely permanent and due to maturation.
2. Classical conditioning involves learning:
A. associations to stimuli.
B. behaviors through observing others.
C. unconditioned responses.
D. what rewarding behaviors are.
3. In Pavlov’s classical conditioning experiments, the neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a conditioned response is known as the:
A. unconditioned stimulus.
B. conditioned stimulus.
C. reinforced stimulus.
D. unreinforced stimulus.
4. __________ refers to the category of learning in which voluntary behavior is affected by its consequences.
A. Cognitive mapping
B. Classical conditioning
C. Operant conditioning
D. Superstitious learning
5. Kathy buys her groceries from a store that gives her a free gallon of milk every time she buys $100 worth of groceries. She has been shopping at this store for years and has no desire to try a different store. Kathy’s behavior has been influenced by:
A. positive punishment.
B. negative punishment.
C. positive reinforcement.
D. negative reinforcement.
6. Sara’s shoes hurt her feet terribly. She took them off and immediately felt relief. She is likely to take off her shoes again when they bother her. This behavior is an example of:
A. positive reinforcement.
B. negative reinforcement.
C. positive punishment.
D. negative punishment.
7. The thought processes that underlie learning:
A. were of great interest to behavioral theorists such as John B. Watson and B. F. Skinner.
B. can be studied in animals when “think aloud” instructions are given.
C. can be observed using objective methods of recording.
D. are the main interest of cognitive learning theorists.
8. Suppose that you are dropped off at a large mall without money and merely wander around casually looking at the stores and displays. Later, someone asks you where a particular store is located in the mall. The fact that you can direct the person to the store indicates that __________ has occurred.
A. behavior modification
B. partial learning
C. stimulus control training
D. latent learning
9. Soon after the popular people in her group started to smoke cigarettes, Barb started smoking too. Barb’s behavior is an example of what kind of learning process?
A. Observational learning
B. Partial extinction
C. Learned helplessness
D. Latent learning
10. People do not always demonstrate the behaviors that they observe. According to Albert Bandura, a social cognitive psychologist, what is the key to demonstrating observed behaviors?
A. Unconditioned stimuli
B. Stimuli control
11. Encoding is the memory process primarily concerned with:
A. getting information into memory.
B. retaining information over time.
C. taking information out of storage.
D. registering information with our senses.
12. In this memory process, the individual records information to prepare it to be entered into memory.
13. When a student took her psychology quiz, she did badly on the essay question. Earlier, she had written a good practice essay on this concept, but during the exam she could not think of the required information. The failure of which memory process led to her poor essay performance?
14. Material held in short term memory is typically lost after about __________ seconds unless it is shifted to long term memory.
A. 1 to 5
B. 15 to 25
C. 45 to 55
D. 100 to 110
15. Dr. Doherty conducts research in which he asks his subjects to look at slides that contain arrays of objects, after which he tests the subjects’ memory of the objects on the slides. The subjects are allowed to view the slides for no more than two seconds. What type of memory is Dr. Doherty testing?
A. Semantic memory
B. Elaborative rehearsal
C. Remote memory
D. Sensory memory
16. Which of the following statements about short-term memory is true?
A. Short-term memory is a high capacity storage system that has complete representational capabilities.
B. Short-term memory is a low capacity storage system that has complete representational capabilities.
C. Short-term memory is a low capacity storage system that has incomplete representational capabilities.
D. Short-term memory is a high capacity storage system that has incomplete representational capabilities.
17. The process of rehearsal has what result?
A. It helps to prolong information in short term memory but has no effect on the transfer of material into long term memory.
B. It extends the duration of information in short term memory and also assists its transfer into long term memory.
C. It facilitates neither short term memory nor long term memory.
D. It has no effect on short term memory duration, yet it facilitates the transfer of material into long term memory.
18. Repeatedly reciting a sequence of words:
A. activates different brain areas than when the word sequence is spoken the first time.
B. is a characteristic symptom of the disorder known as Korsakoff’s syndrome.
C. minimizes the effects of proactive interference.
D. prevents trace decay from occurring.
19. Charlene flew to see her grandparents on a plane that was piloted by XXXXX XXXXX. When Charlene arrived they asked her how she enjoyed the flight. “It was a wonderful flight, and the pilot was very good. He was able to avoid turbulence.” Charlene’s inability to remember the pilot’s gender may have been influenced by:
A. flashbulb tendencies.
D. retrieval cues.
20. Justin’s new telephone number is(NNN) NNN-NNNN He frequently tells people that it is(NNN) NNN-NNNN He is puzzled as to why he keeps doing that until he realizes that the first three digits of his social security number are 633. Justin realizes that his problem is caused by:
D. serial positioning.
1. Learning is a change in behavior that is: