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Develop a comprehensive early reading plan based on the following case scenario and the tasks that follow the scenario:
Kale has just transferred to a new school from another state. It is the middle of the school year and Kale’s new teacher is concerned about his reading skills, particularly his decoding and sight words. His school records have not arrived from his old school, but his parents said that his previous teacher had asked to meet with them, but they were unsure if it was about reading. They thought it may have been about behavior. His primary spoken language is French. English is Kale’s second language. His parents struggle with speaking English and need an interpreter during meetings. It is unclear what prompted the move, but it appears it was sudden and not planned. Kale is an only child and there does not appear to be any family or friends in the area. Kale’s parents are currently unemployed.
Kale completed some assessments for his new teacher, who noted some skill deficits. Most of Kale’s peers recognize sight words like “and,” “has,” “is,” “a,” “the,” “was,” “to,” “have,” and “said.” Kale has difficulty when he encounters these words. Kale’s oral reading is slow and labored. He often says the wrong letter sound or guesses at words or waits until a peer says the word for him. Kale is unable to answer simple comprehension questions (e.g., main idea, main characters) after he has listened to a passage read aloud, as well. His teacher has scheduled a meeting with Kale’s parents to discuss the assessments.
The teacher developed the following instructional goals for Kale:
Given a letter or letter combination, Kale will say the corresponding sound, accurately, three out of four trials.
Given a brief reading passage on his instructional level, Kale will read the passage and be able to retell the main ideas, three out of four trials.
Given a CVC (consonant-vowel-consonant) word prompt, Kale will be able to say the word “slowly” (sounding it out) and then say it “fast” (reading as a whole word), accurately and automatically.
After listening to a story, Kale will recall three or four sequenced events.
Shown sight words, Kale will state the word automatically.
Part 1: Reading Strategies
Summarize the following reading strategies in 100-200 words each. Describe the benefits of the strategy and specific tips for implementation.
Comprehension strategies
Graphic organizers
Independent practice
Model-lead-test
Peer tutoring
Repeated reading
Part 2: Instructional Goals
In 250-500 words, complete the following:
Sequence each of Kale’s instructional goals described in the case scenario in the order you would address them with him.
For each instructional goal, select an early reading strategy to use from Part 1 and explain why or how it will assist Kale in achieving the instructional goal.
Explain how you would involve Kale’s parents. Develop an activity from one of the early reading strategies that Kale’s parents can use at home.
Consider the effects of having moved to a new place, learning English as a second language from parents not proficient in English, and any cognitive processing problems that should be formally assessed. Explain how these issues should be considered to further assist Kale.
PART B: DUE AUGUST 30, 2019
Allocate 3 hours in the field to support this field experience.
Observe, interview, and collaborate with the mentor teacher, who currently teaches English language arts in a high school (Grades 9-12) inclusive, resource, or self-contained setting, during at least two different ELA lessons.
During your observations, make note of the following:
Reading and writing strategies
Strategies specific to adolescent students
How instruction is differentiated to meet individual student needs
Instructional methods
Student groupings during instruction
Informal assessments that are used
Reading materials and genres
In 250-500 words, summarize and reflect upon your interview, observations, and instructional support. Discuss which methods and strategies best met the needs of the students. Explain how you will use your findings in your future professional practice.
PART C: DUE SEPT. 2, 2019
Review the following case scenario and complete the tasks:
Student: Marius
Age: 8
Grade: 3
Marius is a third grade student who transferred to Oakwood Elementary School late in the fall. His teacher, Mrs. Pfirman, has noticed that he seems to struggle with many independent reading assignments. When Mrs. Pfirman administered the mid-year universal screening measure, she was not surprised to see that Marius’ reading score was below the grade-level benchmark. Consequently, Mrs. Pfirman decided to begin Level 1 RTI by monitoring Marius’ reading performance once a week for seven weeks using measures to assess his decoding, phonemic awareness, and vocabulary skills. Marius’ mother indicates that he was on grade level prior to moving; however, records received from his previous school do not show this. In other subject areas, Marius excels. His math skills are above the benchmark for his grade level. His speaking skills and verbal vocabulary are also on or above grade level.
On the initial assessment, the Beginning Phonics Diagnostic Assessment, Marius scored perfectly on all consonants and uppercase letters. He was able to sound out all short vowel letter sounds, and all vowel-consonant (VC) and consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words with beginning and continuous sounds. However, he was unable to read four of the six words on the measure of CVC words beginning with stop sounds, and only read one of the words on the consonant-consonant-vowel-consonant (CCVC) words with beginning blends sub-test. He read no other words on the rest of the assessment correctly.
On the Acadience Reading third grade beginning of the year assessment, Marius scored intensive. His scores on this assessment for weeks 5, 6, and 7 were 22, 27, and 33. The benchmark that would be expected after the 7 weeks of interventions is 30 and the expected criteria is 1.6. In addition, Marius’ rate of growth was 1.4.
On a Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, he scored in the 84th percentile, which is well above average.
Marius is extremely interested in dinosaurs, Minecraft, and science. He has two dogs that he is extremely fond of and shares stories about these dogs in school. He is sometimes off task, pretending to be a dinosaur or a character from Minecraft. He knows just about every dinosaur by name, geographical region found and era. He knows what they all eat, how they lived, and when they were killed. He has seen all of the Jurassic Park movies (according to his self-report anyway) and is eagerly hoping to one day bring the dinosaurs back using DNA like they do in the movies.
Marius is from a single parent home and appears to move frequently. His mother does have a good job, though, and he appears to have other strong family ties, including some visitations with his dad. Marius is from a bi-racial couple who never married and do not live together, although they maintain a good parenting relationship.
Compose a 500-750 word evaluation of Marius incorporating the following:
Determine whether Marius is responding adequately to Tier 1 instruction, rationalizing your response.
Based on your determination above and additional research, what tier of instruction would you recommend for Marius?
What do you recommend Marius read, based on his interests and background? List three titles you would suggest.
Determine what cultural and linguistic factors his teacher must consider when planning an intervention for him, given the scenario and data.
In what learning environments do you think Marius would learn best? Why? Justify your choices with information from the scenario and your research.
For next steps, would there be any reasons to simply wait and see how Marius does in the next quarter or do you believe immediate intervention is necessary? Explain your answer.
Support your evaluation with a minimum of two scholarly resources.
PART D. DUE: SEPTEMBER 7, 2019
Create a digital presentation, to be used for teacher professional development in an elementary school, which creatively and accurately explains current research on how to develop reading comprehension skills. Your presentation should be 10-15 slides, including a title slide, reference slide, and presenter’s notes.
Within your presentation, explain each of the following:
Summarize how language development, fluency, and vocabulary are critical to building a student’s capacity to comprehend what he or she reads at a younger age.
Select three of the five recommendations from the practice guide meant to increase reading comprehension for young readers. Demonstrate how each recommendation relates to the research you presented.
Describe evidence-based strategies, different from those in the practice guide, that students can be taught to use to enhance their language development, fluency, and comprehension. Justify why these strategies are useful.
Your digital presentation should include graphics that are relevant to the content, are visually appealing, and use space appropriately.
Support your presentation with a minimum of two scholarly resources.
PART E. DUE SEPTEMBER 9, 2019
Allocate at least 3 hours in the field to support this field experience.
Collaborate with the mentor teacher to identify a student or small group of students with disabilities who would benefit from differentiation and engagement strategies during an upcoming ELA lesson or activity.
Part 1: Student Challenges
With permission from the mentor teacher, work with the student or small group of students and observe them while they work on problems in class from an ELA lesson that was taught. Identify the areas noted below where the student/s seem to struggle.
Some areas of concern where students may struggle in ELA include:
Output difficulties
Organizational difficulties
Language difficulties
Attention difficulties
Visual spatial or ordering difficulties
Difficulties with multiple tasks
After observing and noting areas of concern, discuss with each student if he or she considered the areas identified as challenging for them. Continue to work with the student/s with guided practice and support.
Meet with the mentor teacher to discuss your findings. Share strategies you feel would benefit the student/s and have your mentor review these with you to make sure they are appropriate.
Be prepared to use these strategies for Clinical Field Experience C.
Use any remaining field experience hours to assist the teacher in providing instruction and support to the class.
Part 2: Reflection
After your observations and discussions with the student/s and your mentor teacher, summarize and reflect upon your experiences in 500-750 words, including:
Describe your initial conversation with the mentor teacher, including how the student/s were chosen.
Discuss the areas where the student/s seem to struggle. Ensure pseudonyms are used for the students to maintain student confidentiality.
Address the discussion with each student regarding the areas that seemed to challenge them. Was the student in agreement with you, or did not feel there was a challenge, or did not need support? If so, how did you continue to support them?
Discuss the strategies that you shared with the mentor teacher. Did the mentor agree the strategies were appropriate? Explain.
Explain how you will use your findings to further assist the students while working with them in this placement. This will also help prepare you for Clinical Field Experience C, as well as your own future classroom engagements.