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1. According to Anti-Slavery International (ASI), which of the following statements is true?
A. Debt bondage is a form of slavery.
B. In every condition of slavery, people are owned by other people.
C. Human trafficking is the most common form of slavery.
D. Child slavery is mainly found in middle-income countries.
2. A class system is based on _______, whereas a caste system is stratification based on _______.
A. capitalism; birth
B. either ascription or achievement; birth
C. ascription and achievement; ascription
D. individualism; collectivism
3. Which of the following countries would be considered a middle-income country?
A. Brazil
B. Russian Federation
C. Sudan
D. Canada
4. Regarding gender socialization in Western cultures, the female world seems to emphasize cooperation and ______, whereas the male world seems to emphasize _______ and action.
A. sharing; independence
B. emotion; competition
C. emotion; independence
D. sharing; competition
5. Oscar Lewis argued that poor people tend to be trapped in
A. a culture of poverty.
B. poverty, due to victim blaming.
C. dead-end occupations.
D. cycles of achievement and despair
6. In the Middle Ages in Europe, the legal concept of primogeniture applied primarily to the _______ estate.
A. second
B. third
C. fourth
D. first
7. When minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant culture, _______ occurs.
A. assimilation
B. appropriation
C. pluralism
D. segregation
8. At least in the United States, what is the main reason women earn less pay than men?
A. Family responsibilities
B. Discrimination against women
C. Male expectations regarding pay
D. The type of work they do
9. According to your text, if your income is between $28,000 and $49,000 a year, you would be classified as
A. middle class.
B. lower-middle class.
C. upper-middle class.
D. average middle class.
10. If you agreed with the views of Immanuel Wallerstein, which one of the following factors would you think helps create dependency?
A. foreign debt.
B. foreign trade.
C. broad, import-oriented economies.
D. a surplus of industrial capacity.
11. The analysis of the interaction of race, class, and gender is called _______ theory.
A. minority
B. intersection
C. interplay
D. minority transaction
12. The highest concentration of White Anglo-Saxon Protestants (WASPs) is found in
A. Oregon and Washington state.
B. Utah.
C. Appalachia.
D. New England and Massachusetts.
13. Classes are harder to define than castes because _______ is present in class systems.
A. racism
B. status inconsistency
C. role flexibility
D. status prestige variation
14. In the United States, race or ethnicity often serves as a/an _______ status that overshadows an individual’s character and accomplishments.
A. dominant
B. ascribed
C. master
D. subordinate
15. Under globalization, the greatest reduction in poverty has occurred in
A. Latin America.
B. South Africa.
C. Mexico.
D. Asia
16. Regarding gender and education, which of the following statements is true?
A. In 2008, women earned 50 percent of all master’s degrees.
B. The majority of lawyers are now women.
C. As of 1992, women earned a majority of post-graduate degrees.
D. The majority of doctors are now women.
17. In Margaret Meade’s study of three New Guinea tribal cultures, she found that the Tchambuli were different from the Arapesh and Mundugumor in which of the following ways?
A. Men and women shared many of the same gender traits.
B. Men and women both displayed hostile and aggressive attitudes.
C. “Masculine” traits were expected of women and “feminine” traits characterized men.
D. Gender roles were adopted indiscriminately by both men and women
18. Sociologists apply the concept of socioeconomic status (SES) to their analyses of social class differences. This SES concept reflects the views on stratification proposed by
A. Karl Marx.
B. Max Weber.
C. Adam Smith.
D. Davis and Moore.
19. Taking a global perspective, if you take the view that affluence, not poverty, requires explanation, then chances are you espouse
A. dependency theory.
B. conflict theory.
C. modernization theory.
D. the core-peripheral distinction among nations.
20. The social construct of race is to _______ traits as the social construct of ethnicity is to _______ traits.
A. genetic; minority
B. biological; cultural
C. biological; minority
D. genetic; cultural