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SOCIAL WORLDS IN TRANSITION
1. With regard to Ferdinand Tönnies’ theory of Gemeinschaft societies, which of the following statements is most accurate?
A. The division of labor requires organic solidarity.
B. People are ununited in spite of separating factors.
C. The division of labor requires mechanical solidarity.
D. People are united in spite of separating factors.
2. A woman may bear 20 children during her childbearing years in terms of _______. However, actual _________ is limited by various cultural and environmental constraints.
A. demography; fecundity B. demography; fertility C. fertility; fecundity
D. fecundity; fertility
3. Durkheim maintained that industrial societies were held together by _______ solidarity.
A. organic B. corporate C. community D. mechanical
4. The theory that argues social movements result when socially isolated people are attracted to a common cause that offers them social identity is the _______ theory.
A. resource mobilization B. culture C. mass-society D. relative-deprivation
5. With respect to a specified territory, the difference between emigration and immigration for every 1,000 people per year is called the _______ migration.
A. specific B. crude C. net D. cumulative
6. For Peter Berger, modern societies are characterized by
A. a decreasing awareness of time. B. increasing social diversity.
C. the rise of traditional communities. D. the contraction of personal choice.
7. Say that the spokespeople for the “Human Wellness” movement succeeds in changing the attitudes and opinions of the public and key public officials. In the context of social movements and social change, this process is called
A. case making. B. claims making. C. rational persuasion. D. dynamic persuasion
8. Jacob is keen to adopt the latest fashions and is often inclined to imitate role models who appear to be “in the know.” David Riesman would probably characterize Jacob as being
A. inner directed. B. other-directed. C. extroverted. D. introverted
9. Regarding modernity, you would be correct if you associate “disenchantment” with the work of
A. Max Weber. B. Karl Marx. C. Emile Durkheim. D. Ferdinand TÖnnies.
10. Kai Erikson would say that the most damaging effect of disastrous events occurs when
A. human communities are disrupted. B. disaster results from the actions of other people
C. the disaster results from technological failures.D. people’s moral failures are revealed.
11. In many urban areas and on Indian reservations, poor people, many of whom are minorities, have been exposed to hazardous industrial waste. This social phenomenon is referred to as
A. environmental discrimination. B. residential discrimination.
C. residential racism. D. environmental racism.
12. Which of the following kinds of environmental problems are irreversible?
A. Polar ice pack melting B. Water pollution C. Species extinction
D. Extremely high atmospheric carbon dioxide levels
13. Max Weber traced the roots of most social movements to changes in
A. ideas. B. culture. C. economic conditions. D. population demographics
14. Social ties have been weakened by bureaucracy and prosperity in what structural-functionalists call a/an _______ society,
A. attenuated B. mass C. anomic D. modern
15. To attain an ecologically sustainable global society, which of the following measures proposed in your text most directly requires a shift in self-perception?
A. We must control population growth. B. We must conserve finite resources.
C. We must reduce waste. D. We must revise egocentric worldviews.
16. What is the main reason that the sex ratio is usually below 100?
A. On average, women live longer than men.
B. One hundred percent is a logical limit.
C. Men are more likely to die in infancy.
D. On average, men live longer than women
17. Urbanites develop a blasé attitude in response to the crush of people, things, and events in the perspective of
A. Robert Park and Louis Wirth. B. Georg Simmel. C. Max Weber. D. Emile Durkheim
18. In the formula I = PAT, “I” stands for _______, “P” stands for population, “A” stand for _______, and “T” stands for technology.
A. impact; atmosphere B. impact; affluence C. incidence; atmosphere
D. incidence; affluence
19. Demographic transition theory links population levels to a given society’s level of _______ development.
A. sociological B. technological C. industrial D. economic
20. Sir Thomas Malthus’s most relevant lesson for us today is that
A. modern reproductive technology has had no detectable effect on population growth.
B. population increase is invariably geometric.
C. land, water, and other resources are limited.
D. food production can increase at