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Five questions of 6.50 each
1. Innate and adaptive immune responses are said to be co-dependent and cooperative branches of immunity. Briefly describe two distinct cellular/molecular examples that clearly represent this co-dependency and cooperation.
2. Describe five principle categories of antibody effector functions. For each category, explain the roles of antibody Fab and Fc domains and cellular Fc receptors.
3. Monoclonal antibody technology was first developed in the 1970’s and was accompanied by hopes that they would serve as “magic bullets”.
a) What was meant by this concept of “magic bullet”?
b) Why didn’t it work right away and how was this problem overcome?
c. Explain the key differences between chimeric, humanized, and fully humanized antibodies; and briefly explain the process by which each type is created.
4. Two vaccines are described in a. and b. below. For each, predict whether the vaccine would activate a cytotoxic T cell response or just a T helper and B cell response. Explain your answers by describing what you have learned about antigen processing and presentation. Be sure to include key steps and molecules involved in each processing pathway.
a. A UV- inactivated (“killed”) viral preparation that has retained its antigenic properties, but cannot invade or replicate in host cells.
b. An attenuated active (“live”) viral preparation that has low virulence but can still invade and replicate in host cells.
5. You have been working hard in an immunology research group to create “knock-out” mice with homozygous deletions in the following genes: 1) Rag 1 & Rag 2 (double mutant); and 2) CD8. Somehow, your mutant strains have been mixed up and now you must perform tests to determine which strain is which. For each of the two mutant strains listed, briefly describe:
i. The function of the normal gene.
ii. The expected mutant phenotype. (Be specific. Explain the cellular/physiological phenotype, and NOT simply that the mouse is sick.)