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Janine has controlled extraneous variables in her study. Therefore, Janine’s study exhibits high ___________ validity.
a.
external
b.
internal
c.
construct
d.
content
Bess has conducted a pretest-posttest control-group study to raise math scores among fifth-grade
students who have failed math. She has controlled the potential problem of __________ because
she has selected participants for the experimental and control groups from the same pool of
extremely low-scoring participants.
a. diffusion of treatment
b.
instrumentation
c.
selection
d.
statistical regression
Bess has conducted a pretest-posttest control-group study to raise math scores among fifth-grade
students who have failed math. She has controlled the potential problem of _________ because she
has randomly assigned the students to the experimental and control groups.
a.
instrumentation
b.
statistical regression
c.
selection
d.
history
Ronda would like to assess the effects of a reading comprehension course on the scores of
students. She gives a group of remedial students a reading comprehension pretest and then
randomly assigns them to either the treatment group or the control group. Shortly after the
treatment, she measures their reading comprehension scores again.
What kind of research design did Ronda use?
a.
Solomon four-group design
b.
Non-equivalent group design
c.
Pretest-posttest control-group design
d.
Interrupted time-series design
Ronda would like to assess the effects of a reading comprehension course on the scores of
students. She gives a group of remedial students a reading comprehension pretest and then
randomly assigns them to either the treatment group or the control group. Shortly after the
treatment, she measures their reading comprehension scores again.
How has Ronda controlled for the selection threat to internal validity?
a.
She has randomly assigned participants to groups.
b.
She has given a reading comprehension pretest.
c.
She has given a reading comprehension posttest.
d.
She has administered a treatment.

Ronda would like to assess the effects of a reading comprehension course on the scores of
students. She gives a group of remedial students a reading comprehension pretest and then
randomly assigns them to either the treatment group or the control group. Shortly after the
treatment, she measures their reading comprehension scores again.
Which set of results would result in Ronda being worried about the internal validity threat of testing?
a.
The treatment group improves their reading comprehension scores and the control group does
not.
b.
The control group improves their reading comprehension scores and the treatment group does
not.
c.
The treatment group and the control group both increase their reading comprehension scores.
d.
The reading scores of both the treatment group and the control group stay the same across
time.
Ronda would like to assess the effects of a reading comprehension course on the scores of
students. She gives a group of remedial students a reading comprehension pretest and then
randomly assigns them to either the treatment group or the control group. Shortly after the
treatment, she measures their reading comprehension scores again.
Suppose Ronda finds out that participants in the treatment group were helping participants in the
control group with their reading comprehension. Ronda should be worried about which threat to
internal validity?
a.
Selection
b.
Experimental mortality
c.
Testing
d.
Diffusion of treatment
8.
Case studies _________ cause-and-effect conclusions; single-case experiments _________ cause-
and-effect conclusions.
a.
do not allow; do not allow
b.
allow; do not allow
c.
allow; allow
d.
do not allow; allow
Renee conducts a single-case experiment in which she changes two variables simultaneously.
Renee has
a.
utilized a factorial design.
b.
utilized a multiple-groups design.
c.
controlled for several threats to internal validity.
d.
a confound.
A researcher conducts an experiment with Mary, an 8-year-old autistic girl. The researcher first
measures how many times Mary hits her head against a wall per day (for a total of 10 days). Then,
the researcher begins reinforcing Mary when she engages in productive behaviors (e.g., playing
quietly) and does NOT hit her head against a wall. The researcher again measures how many times
Mary hits her head against a wall per day (for a total of 10 days). What kind of research design has
this researcher used?
a.
A-B-A
b.
A-B-A-B
c.
A-B
d.
Interrupted time-series

Juan conducts a study with a boy who has been inattentive during class. Juan first measures the
number of times per class period the boy looks around the classroom without paying attention to the
teacher. Then, Juan administers a treatment whereby the boy is given a reinforcement for each time
that he pays attention to the teacher. Then, Juan takes away the reinforcement for a period of time
to see if the inattentiveness returns. Finally, Juan reintroduces the reinforcement for attentive
behavior. Juan has conducted which kind of experiment.
a.
A-B-A design
b.
A-B-A-B design
c.
interrupted time-series design
d.
posttest-only control-group design
Chris would like to conduct a study on the effectiveness of a new substance-abuse treatment
program. He has a sample of participants go through the program and he uses as a comparison
group people who did not volunteer for the program but were eligible. Chris has used a(n)
_________ design for his study.
a.
interrupted time-series
b.
pretest-posttest control-group
c.
nonequivalent group
d.
Solomon four-group
If you use computer equipment in your study, you should label the second section of your method
section
a.
apparatus.
b.
materials.
c.
equipment.
d.
testing instruments.
Pedro would like to see an explanation of the experimental manipulations in the manuscript he is
reading. Pedro should turn to the ________ section.
a.
participants
b.
materials
c.
procedure
d.
apparatus
Marissa is reading about how the results of the current study relate to past research on the topic.
Based on this information, you suspect that she is reading the __________ section of an APA-
format paper.
a.
results
b.
discussion
c.
method
d.
introduction
Examine the following headings:
Method
Procedure
Pretraining period.
The heading Pretraining period is considered a level _____ heading.
a.
1
b.
3
c.
4
d.
5

17.
Which of the following illustrates passive voice?
a.
The experimenter gave each participant a debriefing sheet.
b.
The participants were paid, debriefed, and dismissed.
c.
The participants showed the experimenter their recall sheets.
d.
All of the above illustrate passive voice.
18.
Which of the following is grammatically correct according to the APA Publication Manual?
a.
The beverage which each participant consumed was randomly determined.
b.
The test, that was given by a trained confederate, contained five items.
c.
The items that were deleted had low reliability.
d.
All of the above are correct.
19.
Which of the following statements is true concerning the usage of since and while?
a.
Since can be used interchangeably with because.
b.
While can be used interchangeably with although.
c.
While can be used interchangeably with whereas.
d.
Since and while can only be used to make time comparisons.